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Conflict Resolution and Arbitration of Disputes

What's the Deal With Complexity Theory?

John F. Kennedy's 

Speech at American University,

June 4, 1963

U.S. President John F. Kennedy used a commencement speech he made at American University in 1962 to announce the results of nuclear conflict resolution talks between the U.S. and Russia. See if you can classify the "solutions" Nikita Kruschev and Kennedy agreed upon,with the help of English Prime Minister Harold MacMillan as mediator:


"First: Chairman Khrushchev, Prime Minister Macmillan, and I have agreed that high-level discussions will shortly begin in Moscow looking toward early agreement on a comprehensive test ban treaty. Our hopes must be tempered with the caution of history--but with our hopes go the hopes of all mankind.


Second: To make clear our good faith and solemn convictions on the matter, I now declare that the United States does not propose to conduct nuclear tests in the atmosphere so long as other states do not do so. We will not be the first to resume. Such a declaration is no substitute for a formal binding treaty, but I hope it will help us achieve one. Nor would such a treaty be a substitute for disarmament, but I hope it will help us achieve it.


Finally, my fellow Americans, let us examine our attitude toward peace and freedom here at home. The quality and spirit of our own society must justify and support our efforts abroad. We must show it in the dedication of our own lives--as many of you who are graduating today will have a unique opportunity to do, by serving without pay in the Peace Corps abroad or in the proposed National Service Corps here at home."

text source: speech transcript at John F. Kennedy Presidential Library

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